Adim is a cultural community that refers to a set of people that occupy a certain quarter in Biase Local Government area in Cross river state, Nigeria. The Adim people speak Adim and Efik language. According to reports, Adim is spoken by about 16,000 speakers. The Adim community is administered by clan heads and are assisted by chiefs.
1.1. Historical Background of the Adim People
There is no general acceptability among the people of Adim as to their historical origin. Some people posit that their ancestors came from Otum Usa. Some others believe that they had dominated the present day location from time in inception negating the stance that they are ancient migrants into the community. This research based its scope on tracing the real source. However, after a prolonged attempt, we are able to arrive at the justification that Adim people are indeed migrants. The people of Adim’s initial origin is indeed located around Otum Usa settlement (Abi LGA) in Ebom-Ebijiakara on the Eastern bank of Cross river state. The migrants first settled at Orum-Ugom before finally pitching their tent in the present day Biase LGA.
Biase LGA,which is now the new abode of the Adim people, consist of the 3 basic Adim groups with diverse views about their origin:
i. The Isobo
ii. The Otum Usa
iii The Calabar Estuary
The Isobo origin believes that the Adim people were originally Igbos. According to them, Adim people were driven out of their original Igbo home by a more powerful group. During the headship of Onun Eo Oti, the Adim people came into contact with Agwagune. Onun Eo Oti, as a generous leader, accommodated and allotted a piece of land for their settlement. It was then Agwagune gave them the name “Adimi Mo Abba”, which means ‘people pressed to the ground.’. However, based on research, this myth isn’t as solid enough.
The Otum Usa
The Otum Usa group posits that Adim migrated from a place called ‘Otum Usa’ meaning ‘Old settlement’. Otum Usa was situated between Usumotong and Behumono clan in the present Abi Local Government Area.
History has it that a sudden strained relationship developed between the then Adim people and the Behumono (their host). This situation forced the people of Adim to flee to small settlement in Inuk Ogama Inamoka, Arummigon, Onolie Ejak and Ogwe in the present day location
The calabar estuary
The calabar estuary origin revealed that the wars and the search for food and new homes caused them to migrate with the Umon people up to the Cross river. They first lived together with the Umon people before they later moved out as a result of their increasing population with reference to accommodation.
àFrom the fore-going, it is also founded that the original nomenclature of the ‘Adim’ is ‘Arum’. Adim, being the corrupt form or the colonial coinage of the main word –arum, – is a shortened form of ‘arumerume’. Researchers have also asserted that Arumerume clan comprises originally of 5 distinct groups sharing a common history of tribe, migration and unification.
In all, one thing is constant, the Adim people, in search of a plain and fertile land supportive of agriculture, migrated into the present day Biase LGA either through Osobo, Otum-Usa or Calabar Estuary.
1.3 Socio-cultural Profile of Adim people
In Adim the concept of marriage is well institutionalized as a social affair. In those days, Parent made choices of who their daughter would marry. They may have contracted since childhood days. The first approach was for the parent of the boy to present some token, a bunch of Indigo, Coconut, and a piece of cloth; not more than a yard to the parent of the Girl. The Girl is then betrothed. They may not have reach school age when the contact was made, but they grow up with this agreement, if the proposal partners had a violent objection to the union, it was possible to break off the agreement. During the period of engagement, the suitors is required to work for a while on the farm of his prospective in-laws, to test his strength and devotion to the intended bride
Farming in Adim is segregated. Although both men and women can engage in farming but men are expected to clear the farm, till the land and other sundry activities that has to do with Farm cultivation, while the weeding of the farms was done by the women. Apart from farming the people of Adim practise other economic activities like hunting fishing trapping of animals among others.
Religion in Adim is widely traditional as the people believe in the existence of Supreme Being called ‘Obasi Golok Ekpeyeng’. The belief in the continuity of life and the community of interest between the living and the dead and the generation yet unborn was fundamental to the religious life of the Adim people. The belief of the people in life after death was portrayed in their burial rituals. They belief in burying some of the properties of the dead with him while is his buried. These properties of the deceased may include matchet, sniff box, sleeping mats, drinking cup, calabash of wine and some cloths. The heads of the deceased slaves are also buried with him. The significance of these practice is the believe that they would make use of these properties in their next life. The existence of many gods in the form of stone or trees and other creations were rampant in their culture. They make sacrifices of goat fowl and yams to these lesser deities from time to time. The spirit of these ancestors was usually evoked by pouring of oil, in the process Prayers and thanks were offered to the ancestors calling on them to the almighty God. But as time went on Gradually, Christianity was accepted.
The period of informal education in Adim is stretched from the period when work of art favoured among men and women. The men learnt, taught and carved works of art i.e. idols, while the women in their part were setting pace on decoration. While the people of Adim were wallowing in abject ignorance, other villages in Biase specifically the Agwagune were making there marks in endeavours such as western education and commerce. This inability to imbibe western education early enough placed the Adim people in a disadvantaged position.
Before the advent of ‘money’ as proposed by foreign economist, the Adim people also had their own tender for transactions before the early 20s. Unlike the regular barter system in Africa back then, the Adim people made use of copper rods as a medium of exchange. This form proved to be less complex and more effective for them. Their was at that time another form of currency employed by the Adim people –The ‘Manilla currency’. Manilla was a whitish 15cm long piece introduced into their trade system by the neighboring Ibibio traders. At that time, a 80 manillas was equivalent to one pound.